Candidates with facial deformities can be corrected by some techniques. Techniques for correction of facial deformities are as follows:
- Craniofacial surgery
- Orthognathic or orthomorphic surgery
- Cleft lip or Palate lip surgery
Craniofacial surgery: Craniofacial surgery is a surgery involved in the management of cranium and facial deformities. This surgery involves the manipulation of cranium.
- What type of facial deformities it corrects?
- Misshapen heads (Craniosyntosis)
- Defects on Nose �naso frontal encephalocele
- Mid face Hypoplasia
- How it corrects the deformities?
Facial deformities can be corrected by craniosyntosis. Before this surgery preparative instructions should be followed.
- Preoperative instructions: 6 weeks before the surgery patient is medicated with blood enrichment drugs. Patient should not take any solid foods 2 hours before the surgery.
- Steps involved in the surgery are:
- General anesthesia (I.V infusion) is given to anesthetize the entire body
- Then surgeon makes an incision on the scalp to expose the skull
- The incision is made in zig-zag manner from ear to ear
- Then the skull is manipulated or corrected then sutures are made on the scalp
- This zig- zag manner makes to grow hair in later days
- After few weeks the sutures gets dissolved into the skin.
Orthognathic surgery: Orthognathic surgery is a surgery involved in the management of deformities in upper or lower or both the jaws. The deformities are mainly due to fracture of jaw in childhood and repair of cleft lip in childhood.
- How it is done?
- Preoperative treatment – In this step, patients jaw are examined and braces are fixed on to the teeth to straighten them to fix jaws properly. It takes 12-18 months to fix them together.
- Surgery – Initially general anesthesia is given to anesthetize the entire body. Then an incision is made inside the mouth to expose the jaw bone. Then the jaws are adjusted to the position of the preplanned mold and fixed in the position using bone plate and screw. It takes long time to correct the abnormalities in jaw.
- Post operative treatment – Braces are removed and the period of this treatment is about 6 months.
Surgery can be performed by a skilled orthodontist. The orthognatic surgery involves 3 steps.
Cleft lip surgery: Cleft lip or palate lip is the abnormalities in the upper lip or separation of upper lip. It is mainly due to the lack of formation of some parts on upper lip during gestation. This can be corrected by a cleft or palate lip surgery. Children with cleft lip, face several problems such as hearing and feeding.
- How it is done?
Cleft lip surgery is a multistep process. Initially at the age of 6 months, the repair of palate is done. This improves the feeding and also reduces the hearing problems. It also helps to develop upper jaw in correct position. Next process is done in teenage. In this bone grafting is performed to support the upper jaw and improves speaking ability. Finally braces are placed for a few weeks to straighten the teeth.