The periodontium is the supporting structure to the tooth. It is a complex of soft and hard tissues surrounding the tooth to allow sensations of touch and pressure and also to protect them. It consists other elements such as cementum, periodontal ligaments, Alveolar bone and gingiva.
The periodontal ligament is a specialized tissue that surrounds the root of the tooth and connects it to the alveolar bone. The periodontal ligament consists of cells called osteoblasts, osteoclasts, fibroblasts, macrophages, cementoblasts. Gingiva is the soft tissue surrounding the teeth. Cementum is a part of a tooth that has calcified avascular mesenchymal tissue that forms the outer covering of the anatomic root. The alveolar bone helps to provide support to tooth sockets or jaws. The formation of bone also takes place during tooth eruption and provides attachment to the periodontal ligaments. While chewing or biting, a pressure is exerted on the tooth, the tooth moves slightly and puts tension on the periodontal ligaments. The supporting structures are very critical for dentition.